Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Nature Of Competition Collusion And Pricing Airline Industry Economics Essay

Nature Of Competition Collusion And Pricing Airline Industry Economics Essay The sanctioning of the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 wiped out cost and section guideline of the household carrier industry. From that point forward the U.S. carrier industry has developed colossally. The US residential market contends in an oligopoly scenes. Henceforth there is sure degree of obstructions to rivalry. For instance, command over the automated reservation frameworks utilized by trip specialists furnished the majors with an incredible weapon for disadvantaging littler contenders. American Airlines Saber framework and Uniteds Apollo framework together represented seventy five percent of all national PC reservation frameworks by the late 1980s. Control of this significant road for trip specialists to reserve a spot empowered the majors to oppress littler firms in an assortment of ways-from founding screen inclination preferring the on-screen introduction of the controlling firms flights, to charging over the top expenses to different transporters for showing their trip s on these PC frameworks (moving upwards of a half-billion dollars every year from the littlest to the biggest carriers).[2] All the more as of late, the Big Five transporters have combined to all in all market their tickets online through their Orbitz Web website a coalition that may empower them to all the more likely arrange their non-serious oligopoly valuing and to go around rules set up to keep them from anticompetitive utilizing their PC reservation frameworks while, simultaneously, disadvantaging contending merchants of air tickets.[3] Ruthless Pricing Besides, predominant transporters were stifling rivalry through ruthless estimating. For instance, when Spirit Airlines endeavored to infiltrate Northwests Detroit center with a single direction Detroit-Philadelphia charge of $49, Northwest Airline reacted by cutting its normal admission on the course by 71% (from $170 to $49) and planning 30% more seats. When Spirit surrendered the course, Northwest raised its passage to $230 and cut its seat capacity.[36] Similarly, when Frontier Airlines started administration from Denver (United-ruled center) to Billings, Montana, it offered a normal $100 toll, a large portion of the predominant admission charged by United. Joined sliced its toll to coordinate Frontier; when Frontier left the course, United raised its passage over its unique level.[37] Intrigue Intrigue is a troublesome game to play when the quantity of contriving rivals is huge. It is difficult to keep a hundred firms in line when their cost structures contrast, when their creation offices shift, and when some have an impetus to undermine a value understanding or to abuse yield limitations. Numbers have any kind of effect. At the point when numbers are huge, intrigues are hard to compose, hard to hide, and hard to implement. In any case, open arrangement faces a genuine test in oligopolistic enterprises like the instance of the Airline business where significant bearers shun out and out intrigue and depend rather on a course of direct portrayed as implied agreement, or acknowledgment of shared relationship to look like the impacts of out and out scheme. The mechanics of implicit intrigue is evident especially in an oligopoly advertise commanded by a couple of significant players. Every transporter normally perceives the shared reliance among it and its adversaries. Transporter X realizes that it if were to slice cost so as to build its piece of the overall industry, its animosity would promptly be identified via bearers Y and Z, which would react with retaliatory value cuts of their own. Pieces of the overall industry would be unaffected, yet all bearers would now work at lower costs and benefits. From this time forward, Carrier X can't hope to expand its piece of the overall industry or income to the detriment of its opponents. It can't bear to compute as far as boosting its own benefits in detachment however rather should continually ask whether a specific choice on cost or yield will be in its own personal responsibility, yet additionally to the greatest advantage of its adversaries. By perceiving shared oligopolistic relationship, it must be worried about gathering benefits and gathering government assistance. In other word, under oligopoly scene, autonomous, forceful, truly serious conduct is seen as counterproductive-a nonsensical system for the individual transporter. In an oligopoly, oblivious conformity will impact a transporters methodology when it is considering cost increments as it can't act alone. In other word, oblivious obedience replaces the math of individual bit of leeway, and every transporter must act as a dependable individual from the oligopoly bunch instead of as a foolish, selfish contender. In oligopolies, this acknowledgment of shared association may reach out to non-value rivalry. For instance, if transporter A forgoes forceful cost rivalry however looks to expand its piece of the overall industry through forceful advancement program, it can't anticipate that its adversaries should stand around. It must anticipate that them should build their exploration endeavors as a straightforward matter of self-protection, subsequently invalidating its normal increases. Foreseeing such counter which could disintegrate oligopoly benefits bearer A might shun development for similar reasons it would evade value cutting. Soundness again orders mindful nonaggressive practices; the best benefit augmentation rule under oligopoly is to excel by getting along. By the by, the degree of oligopolistic relationship and conspiracy shifts from circumstance to circumstance. It relies upon such factors as whether the oligopoly is closely knit (modest number of firms) or freely weave (a bigger number);whether it is homogeneous or heterogeneous; regardless of whether it is even (having firms of generally equivalent size) or lopsided (with one firm excessively bigger); regardless of whether the business is experienced (having had the opportunity to build up its interior courses of action and organizations to advance participation); whether the business is populated by sensible supervisors or by a couple of dissidents. In the US local market, the coming of the Internet has expanded the effective of flagging or agreement. Bearers can perceive what the opposition is doing promptly by setting off to the Internet that permit them to respond rapidly by modifying their own costs. This is a long ways from the days when value books were set in type and couldn't be changed for quite a long time. Presently most costs can be balanced a few times each day, if necessary. Evidently, this is a game that the carriers are especially adroit at. As shoppers have increasingly straightforward access to constant flight valuing through online administrations like Orbitz, so the carriers are nearly committed to conform to one another. This is especially obvious on courses where there is no rebel player, similar to Southwest Airlines or JetBlue as they may be (inside limits) allowed to modify costs upward. For whatever length of time that the individuals from the oligopoly with genuine selling power implicitly concur that a significant value war isn't to their greatest advantage, odds are that costs can rapidly straighten out themselves, remembering the parity of expenses and ideal costs for keeping up gainful deals levels. By the by, the consolidated piece of the overall industry of the Big Five system carriers (Delta, United, American, US Airways, and Northwest ) that crested in 1992 has been declining since deregulation [ *]. Moreover, with the convergence of a few minimal effort bearers, unsaid plot is getting hard to compose, hide and uphold despite the fact that oligopolistic levelheadedness and its tricky results are unavoidable concomitants of oligopoly industry structure. Estimating Estimating is significant for the bearers. On the off chance that costs are excessively low or excessively high, it can haul down benefits. Along these lines, it is significant for the bearers to infer productive airfares and disheartens unfruitful one. To augment benefits, the transporters should set costs with the goal that negligible income just equivalents peripheral expense. As it were, it should utilize benefit augmenting costs as the beginning stage. The financial model of estimating ****show diagram****, which is called minimal cost estimating, obviously distinguishes a valuing methodology that will amplify benefits. This estimating procedure likewise recognizes the data expected to set costs, in this manner rearranging the procedure. At the end of the day, the benefit boosting cost is the place the gradual edge rate approaches the corresponding of the total estimation of the value flexibility demandâ [1]â [ **] Based on evaluating rule, the transporters ought to alter its cost where there are changes in the value versatility of interest or minor expense since the bearers contend under oligopoly scenes with homogeneous administrations. Airfares have dropped essentially throughout the years [***] since deregulation which assisted with reenacting rivalry bringing about the passageway of a few minimal effort bearers. This could mostly because of controller and oligopolies increment efficiencies, squeezing their providers just as squeezing the wages and advantages of their representatives Hence there is developing conviction is that oligopolies can be value unbiased instead of controlling costs. The key variable for aircraft bearer is cost in the short run. By and large without item and administration separation, the fundamental help offered by the transporters would be homogeneous. Under the Bertrand model, the bearers which produce at steady peripheral cost and contend forcefully on cost so as to increase a greater portion of the market. Under such condition, the market harmony is totally serious evaluating. Be that as it may, in a freely weave oligopoly structure, the individual transporter has impetus to offer heterogeneous administrations. Through heterogeneous administrations, it can charge customized estimating or bunch evaluating dependent on traveler ready to-pay to accomplish higher benefits. For instance, if transporter X sells its airfares at a solitary, it loses in two different ways. Right off the bat, some traveler would pay more than $100 for a ticket during the most recent hour of the flight. Besides the carri

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Aztec Empire Essay Research Paper The Aztec free essay sample

Aztec Empire Essay, Research Paper The Aztec individuals controlled a lot of what is presently Mexico from around 1427 until 1521, which was the point at which the Spaniards vanquished the imperium. The imperium was at its most noteworthy point since it had started over a century sooner. At the height of their capacity, the Aztec s controlled a section extending from cardinal Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico furthermore in parts of Guatemala. The Aztec s manufactured extraordinary metropoliss and built up a complex cultural, political, and otherworldly development. Their capital, Tenochtitlan, was situated close to contemporary Mexico City. Tenochtitlan was perchance the biggest city known to man at the clasp of the Spanish prevailing. It included an enormous sanctuary, an illustrious stronghold, and numerous waterways. Aztec society was very organized, in light of agribusiness, and guided by a confidence that invaded each aspect of life. The Aztec loved Gods that spoke to common powers that were basic to their horticultural financial framework. Aztec metropoliss were ruled by enormous stone pyramids that had sanctuaries at the top where human relinquishes were done in grant of the God s Aztec craftsmanship was primarily a done to represent confidence, and even warfare.The workmanship expanded the imperium s riches and influence. The essential segment of Aztec society was the calpulli. The calpulli thought of as a kinfolk, or gathering of families who dropped from a typical ascendant. Each calpulli managed their ain individual undertakings, choosing a chamber and officials to look after request, lead in war, authorize justness, and look after records. Calpulli ran schools in which male childs were shown citizenship, fighting, history, exchanges, and confidence. Each calpulli other than had a sanctuary, an arsenal to keep arms, and a house for products that were appropriated among the family unit individuals. Inside each calpulli, land was isolated among the caputs of families orchestrating to their requests. Every family unit reserved a privilege to use the land however claimed only the merchandise that it delivered. In Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, calpulli did likewise things yet at long last changed. As the city became enormous and, the calpulli were not, at this point dependent on family connections, h owever political divisions. Each calpulli still had its ain government chamber, school, sanctuary, and land, however its individuals were non related. There were 15 calpulli in Tenochtitlan when the city was established in 1325. In the16th century there were each piece numerous as 80. A classification of clerics, warriors, and leaders upheld the swayer. Beneath these Lords were the everyday citizens, including merchandisers, imaginative people, warriors, worker husbandmans, and workers. Aztec merchandisers shaped a class called pochteca. They lived specifically developments in the metropoliss, shaped associations, and had numerous benefits. Aztec swayers and Lords claimed land on private homes. Most land for normal keeps an eye on was claimed by a calpulli, which doled out its individuals plots to use. Landowners paid tribute to the imperium in agrarian stocks, which were utilized to gracefully cash for open use. All work powers owed military support of the imperium. Residents could other than be drafted to chip away at open grounds or develop sanctuaries, sewer frameworks, and streets. Despite the fact that Aztec society had thorough classifications, an individual s position could modify dependent on their blessing to society. Ordinary citizens could better their position, especially by executing great in struggle, and become agreeable landholders. Youngsters of certain classes could dissect to go clerics or warriors. Warriors who caught numerous prisoners picked up affirmation and riches and may be conceded into one of a few military requests. A person who submitted an offense or did non pay his obligations turned into a slave ; by the by, such slaves could at long last recuperate their opportunity, and their children were brought into the world free. Cultivating was the focal point of the Aztec monetary framework. The land around the lakes was fruitful however non enormous bounty to deliver supplement for the populace. To improve for cultivating, the Aztec created water system frameworks, and utilized compost to enhance the soil. Their the vast majority of import farming strategy was to rec laim muggy land around the lakes by making incredible islands. On these prolific islands they developed maize, squash, veggies, and blossoms. In the Aztec imperium, a few products were delivered for the swayer or sold in the nearby markets. These included clayware, instruments, gems, statuettes, containers, and texture. Different merchandise, especially extravagance focuses, for example, lake salt, gold improvements, and rich vesture, were conveyed by going bargainers to removed people groups along the Gulf beach and south toward Guatemala. There they were traded for extravagance directs local toward those parts, for example, tropical-flying creature crest, puma coverings, cotton, gum versatile, and beans for cocoa. The Aztec had no metal coins. They utilized beans, cotton texture, and salt as a signifier of cash. As an agrarian people, the Aztec relied, all things considered, upon powers of nature and adored them as Gods. The vast majority of import was their the greater part of import God, the Sun God, Huitzilopochtli, who was other than viewed as the God of war. Other of import Gods were Tlaloc ( the God of downpour ) and Quetzalcoatl, the plumy snake ( the God of air current and procurement ) . The Aztec accepted that the sort Gods must be kept solid to hinder the shrewd Gods from destructing the universe. For this aim they had human relinquishes. People groups most ordinarily relinquished were prisoners of war, despite the fact that Aztec warriors would here and there volunteer for the a greater amount of import conciliatory ceremonies. The god Tlaloc was accepted to lean toward kids as a relinquish. In 1519 Spanish swashbuckler Hernan Cortes and in excess of 500 Spaniards arrived in eastern Mexico in chase of land and gold. his Native American kept lady proposed that he arrange a confederation with one of the challengers of the Aztec, the Tlaxcalans.He did simply that and set out for Tenochtitlan. After make up ones disapproving of how to respond to Cortes, Aztec swayer Montezuma II permitted Cortes to come in the city so as to larn increasingly about him and his motivations. Finding large wholes of gold and other accumulated riches, and dreadful that the Aztec s would attack his hugely dwarfed Spanish power, Cortes held onto Montezuma as a guarantee. The Spaniards dissolved the gold adornments of the Aztec for freight to Spain and constrained Montezuma to revile genuineness to the male ruler of Spain. The Spaniards remained in the city without hostility until around a half year in this manner, when, in Cortes s nonattendance, Spanish official Pedro de Alvarado slaughtered 200 Aztec Lords who had assembled for a profound formal. After Cortes restored, the Aztec revolted, fighting to drive the Spaniards out of Tenochtitlan. The Aztec warriors destroyed the city s Bridgess and pursued the Spaniards into the waterways, where three-quarterss of them, weighted down with taken gold, quickly suffocated. Montezuma was murdered during the resistance. Montezuma s substitution, Cuitlahuac, managed simply a couple of months before perishing of malady. Montezuma s nep hew Cuauhtemoc, who had helped take the resistance to the Spaniards, turned into the accompanying Aztec swayer. Cortezs withdrew to Tlaxcala and accumulated progressively Native American Alliess for a blockading of Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs oil arms were no lucifer for the Fe, steel, and black powder of the Spaniards, who other than had the upside of a major figure of local Alliess. Following five months of despondent and ridiculous battle, Cuauhtemoc gave up in 1521. Cortes tormented and hanged him while on a campaign to Honduras in 1525. The Spaniards vanquished the staying Aztec people groups and assumed control over their territories, constraining them to work in plated mines and on Spanish land. The fall of Tenochtitlan denoted the terminal of the Native American civilisations that had existed in Mesoamerica since the principal human province of the part. On the remnants of Tenochtitlan, the Spaniards manufactured Mexico City. The city s contemporary house of God ascends over the vestiges of an Aztec sanctuary, and the château of the Mexican president remains on the site of the mansion of Montezuma. Today there are only a couple of echt full-blooded Aztec individuals, by the by their craft human progress despite everything stays all through Central America.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Odds and ends and Canada

Odds and ends and Canada My mother called me this weekend to ask if I was washing my sheets. QED: My own mother thinks that I have a stupendously boring life. On the contrary, Ive had a stupendously excellent weekend while my sheets have remained stupendously unlaundered. A few minutes ago, I began to chronicle this weeks adventures and realized that I was about to write a blog entry that would exceed the length of The Old Man and the Sea, and so I decided to split it into two posts. I mean, split my blog into two posts, not Hemingways novella. I tried to split The Old Man and the Sea into two blog posts in high school literature class and it didnt work. Remember this post in which I facetiously asked for a space heater? Turns out that someone unfacetiously sent me a space heater, with flannel sheets tossed in at no extra charge. Unfortunately, I will combust if I ever turn it on, considering that my room heater is consuming as much energy right now as a small nuclear reactor. Still, it was heartwarming gesture, if not a roomwarming one. On the trek back to my room from the front desk, I spied a whiteboard in the hallway with a suspicious bag of candy taped to the side. Thanks to the educational value of countless Halloweens, my childhood had taught me that the correct response to free candy is to grab it as fast as possible and run off to another strangers house. Nonetheless, I had the feeling that this particular brand of sweets was better left under the auspices of lab scientists at MITs world-renowned Whitehead Institute. Speaking of unfortunate product advertising, my roommate picked up the following gem on sale for 50 cents at the grocery market last Thursday. It passes for a can of Crayons until you pick it up and realize that the moment of inertia doesnt seem quite right. Last Thursday also happened to be the night of a Random Hall study break, hosted by none other than my floor (Loop). At Random, each floor consists of around 14 people. As it happened, almost all 14 of these people minus the freshmen were too hosed last week to devote much energy to study break, so I ended up doing most of the planning and shopping. Thus, I authoritatively present a rough guide to study breaking at MIT: 1.Come up with a theme. This was the easy part, considering that America had just had an election two days earlier. Clearly, the natural theme was Canada. 2.Buy food for the entire dorm. This, arguably, was the most difficult step. I nearly drowned on my way back from main campus earlier that night, and the storm showed no hints of subsiding. Here, I present photographic evidence of myself in a gloomy state of rain-soaked misery, burdened with the thought of venturing deeper into the raging monsoon in search of Star Market. My facial expression drips with blatant angst. In all seriousness, the streets were slick as film noir, even without the classy cars. This was the view from my window. Ok, Im done complaining. Onward. 3.Bring back food. Start cooking. (I ended up cooking about 294823934 slices of bacon, which was equivalent to a 6-unit course in Not Getting Scalded by Hot, Deadly Oil. Lesson: bacon hates people who cook it.) 4. Send email out to dorm: My dear countrymen, in light of the recent election, it has been decided that the natural and logical theme of tonights study break should be Canada. Come to Foo at 22:47 and donate your leftover patriotism to our Northern neighbors. Maple syrup and pancakes, maple bacon, hockey puck brownies, Canadian bacon, Canada Dry, and ice cream will be served, courtesy of Loop floor. -Yan 5.Serve food, make sure that people arent studying. At Random, study breaks occur weekly on Thursday nights sometime between 9:17 and 10:47 PM. Traditionally, its a time for residents to get together, enjoy free food, live up to our reputation as a close-knit community, and definitely not study. Past themes this year have included Dystopia (with Soylent Green [vegetables], Soylent Brown [coffee], and Soylent Red [pasta] . . . actually, I have no idea what they served and am probably making this up), Math Constants (with pi pie, Coulombic kool-aid, i-scream, and guacamole), Childhood Nostalgia (grilled cheese and tomato soup, even though the dietary staple of my haphazardly cross-cultural childhood was microwaved supermarket quiche), and Washing Machine #2*. *Its a big deal when the washing machines at Random get fixed. Stay tuned for the story of my four-day weekend, which will most likely be posted as soon as I reach the flip side of a physics exam. Therell be enough food to feed the Internet for a week. Post Tagged #Random Hall

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Aspects of Human Resource Management globalization - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 15 Words: 4457 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Executive Summary: The report aims to discuss aspects of Human Resource Management in light of the ever changing business world given the globalization of businesses today. Globalization has seen changes in the way businesses work and are expected to deliver investor value. Companies started competing not just with local competitors but with organizations across continents which forced companies to relook at continuously innovating and providing a unique value to its customers to retain them. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Aspects of Human Resource Management globalization" essay for you Create order Talent Sourcing and Talent Development within an organization have become a science that identify and accept that diverse employee base form the backbone of a business and are responsible for contributing towards achievement of organizations global goals and directly impacting competitiveness and delivering that Investor value. This report will discuss: The concept of Globalization The increasing diversity of the workforce The changing nature of the workplace The impact of Human Resource Management functions in work organizations. Table of Contents:- 1. Introduction 2. Main Body with examples 3. Critical Success Factors with examples Recommendations 4. Conclusion 5. References Human Resource Management in a Globalized Economy Introduction Early in the 1800s during the times of Industrialization, the approach to managing workforce was primitive task drive approach. Historically, Henry Fords assembly lines and Studies of Frederick Taylor such as the time and motion studies thought of improving productivity by putting employees in line with mechanics. They tried to boost productivity by designing the way work is carried out. They focussed purely on productivity since productivity was what gave profits and therefore competitive edge. Workforce was put them in the same league as machines inviting organization conflict and distraction from the goal. As globalized environment changed the rules of the game, Organizations realized that employees and their talents is the single most important supply of sustainable competitive advantage. Employees are the ones that deploy scarce resources optimally. To survive and to succeed, organization need to leverage its human resource capitals talents to develop new products and servi ces and creating value for customers. This marked change in attitude of managements saw the emergence of concept of Global Human Resource Management which characterizes implementation of personnel policies to maximize objectives of organizational integrity, employee commitment, flexibility and quality at a global level. Global Human Resource Management hence becomes very important since globalization and international operations bring with them challenges beyond a simple Human Resource Management program at a local level. Global Human Resource Management not only covers International recruitment Appropriate training and development Deployment of these resources But also goes beyond simple HRM in maintaining affable international industrial relations. With international operations, managing the employee base worldwide has its own challenges. P Morgan: There are 2 sets of variables when it comes to HRM in for an International Organization First -employee types Second Political, labour laws, culture, legal environment, economic, and practices prevailing in different countries A successful HRM model for an international organization is the successful interplay between these 2 sets. Clearly there is a need to go beyond basic HRM practices to include: More functions and activities In depth wisdom of employment law of the host country Close involvement with employees personal variables Provide for external influences Exposure to newer hurdles and risks Managing differential pay packages Managing ethnic, gender differences More liasoning activities More travel and coordination Higher management of unknown risk variables beyond the country where the headquarters are based It is imperative that Human Resources Management models are deployed in a global context to ensure success. Main Body The Concept of Globalization: While Global trade itself is not a new concept, Globalization is. Globalization can be defined as a process of trade and investment transcending political boundaries undertaken by an interaction of people, processes, entities and spurred on by advances in political systems, technology, business ethics and affecting culture, environment societies leading to cross border prosperity. International trades have been undertaken historically. Traders have traded goods and services over large distances travelling by land and sea. Eg, The silk route that connected the Western World with Central Asia China during the Middle Ages. As time progressed further, we see that cross-border trade, investment immigration boomed. Eg. Since the middle of the 20th Century to today world trade has exponentially grown by 20 times. Only in the last 5 years of the 20th Century, foreign investment currency flow went to US$ 827 billion from a meagre US$ 468 billion. This has had an impact on fiscal policies of governments that have opened up its economies in a controlled manner, both domestically as well as beyond their borders. Eg. The 1991 Financial Budget given by then Finance Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh was figuratively the door to globalization for India. India hasnt looked back since in terms of its growth and prosperity. India adopted a free-market economic system. This greatly increased its own production potential and created a bouquet of opportunities for its own companies and organizations across the world for international trade and investment. Companies started growing by virtue of the geography of their businesses and operations: HRM in the face of such Globalized businesses: In such a dynamic environment today Human Resource Management in a global paradigm involves the manpower planning of staffing requirements the world over, selection of the right candidates, training development of employees for global operations. Since it is established that human resources form the backbone of any strategy, implementation of any strategy to succeed globally with Human Resource Management at its core can provide a strategic competitive edge. Human Resource function in this environment has to provide a support function to line manager by providing guidelines, searching, training, and evaluating employees. With an effective HRM function deployed, the organization would be able to leverage the knowledge, experiences and the skills of its distinctive employee bases the world over. The Increasing Diversity of the Workforce: As Globalization gains steam and becomes the norm, the employee base of multinationals has become varied and rich with nationals from all over the globe. Human Resources across companies have become homogenized, enriching the organizations with depth of knowledge about variables affective markets both within the countries as well as between them. The most successful organizations are ones which utilize this resource to the maximum. Having an experienced employee from a remote market on the team is a natural consequence towards better understanding new market dynamics and new consumer behaviour. Culture in different countries or the mode of doing business in different countries is also different Deal Focus Relationship Focus Country wise distribution: Formal Culture Informal Culture Country wise distribution: Therefore HRM today for an international organization, has to consider Differences in HR practices in the local organizations Perception of HR as a function. Attitude and actions of headquarters towards HR Resistance to change in a myriad of different situations Cultural differences in teaching and assimilating styles The Changing Nature of the Workplace: A diverse organisation will out-think and out-perform a homogeneous organisation every single time. A. Lafley, CEO Procter Gamble Global competition presents a case for Global co-operation. Today, more than ever before, employees find themselves rubbing shoulders with someone from a different culture, race and society on an everyday basis. HR departments in these multinationals have to recruit, develop and retain people who have vastly different backgrounds. This has resulted in new skills to succeed such as sensitivity and other relational aspects. This is termed as cultural intelligence. Cultural intelligence is defined as the capability to adapt effectively across different national, organizational and professional cultures (Earley, Ang and Tan, 2005). Today employees across industries are given job roles globally, taking them around the world. In this new environment employees from home country as well as the expatriate have to learn how to work with each other given that they not only think and communicate differently but also execute differently. The Human Resource Departments need to develop their cultural intelligence to manage this diversity in their companies. The departments have to allow for newer challenges in the face of international employee deployment such as Managing international assignments Employee and family adjustment Selecting the right person for a foreign assignment Culture, communication and gauge Language and communication Staffing Function in an International Organization: Staffing in an international organization goes beyond simply forecasting requirements and selection of the right candidates to fit a job description. It is also a tool to develop and promote the organizations own value system and culture. In an international scenario the following models could be deployed: An Ethnocentric staffing policy A Polycentric staffing policy or a Geocentric staffing policy ETHNOCENTRIC STAFFING POLICY: In this policy, top management positions filled by parent-country nationals. It is actually the best suited to international organizations. Advantages: If the host nation does not have qualified managers, the vacancies can easily be filled The culture of the HQ is easy to spread. Easy transfer of key skills and operating procedures Disadvantages: May result in bitterness in host country Deterrent to cultural diversity POLYCENTRIC STAFFING POLICY When this policy is deployed Host-country nationals manage subsidiaries and parent company nationals hold key headquarter positions. Multi-domestic organizations can benefit from this Advantages: Help rich cultural diversity Implementation is cost effective Easy transfer of key skills and operating procedures Disadvantages: Limits chances of host country employees getting exposure outside their own nation Possibility of gap in mission, values and work culture between HQ and host country operations GEOCENTRIC STAFFING POLICY This policy seeks best people, regardless of nationality. Transnational organizations and Global entities can benefit from this Advantages: Optimum deployment of optimum resources Employees get exposure to different cultures Creates a centralized value system Disadvantages: Local immigration policies may inhibit 100% deployment Higher costs associated with training and relocation May require complex Compensation structures to succeed. The Expatriate Dichotomy: Further when a citizen of one country works in another country, HRM needs to take care of a myriad of issues without which there is a strong chance of failure and a premature return of the employee to his home country The costs associated with failure are not low and are generally estimated at three times the expats annual salary in addition to the costs associated with relocation The issues that can crop up when expats are deployed: Immediate family may not adjust to a new environment The employee may not adjust Other personal issues Culture shock May not be able to cope up with bigger responsibilities Based on how complex the business is and strength of the HR function, it is important to deploy the ideal staffing policy. Recruitment and Selection: International Labour Market Sources Parent Country Nations (PCNs) PCNs are managers who are citizens of the Country where the MNC is headquartered. The reasons for using PCNs include The desire to provide the companys more promising managers with international experience The need to maintain and facilitate organisational coordination and control The unavailability of managerial talent in the host country The companys view of the foreign operation as short lived The host countrys multi-racial population The belief that a parent country manager is the best person for the job. Host Country Nationals (HCNs) HCNs are local managers hired by MNCS The reasons for using HCNs Familiar with the culture, language Less expensive, know the way things done, rules of local market Hiring them is good public relation Third Country Nationals (TCNs) TCNs are managers who are citizens of countries other than the one in which the MNC is headquartered o r the one in which it is assigned to work by the MNC. The reason for using TCNs These people have the necessary expertise They were judged to be the best ones for the job. Selection procedure of Expatriates Use of selection test Technical Ability Cross cultural requirements Following traits are identified s predictors of expatriate success Cultural empathy Adaptability Diplomacy Language ability Positive attitude Emotional stability and maturity Family requirements Multinational requirements Management philosophy or approach The mode of operation involved The duration of assignment The amount of knowledge transfer inherent in the expatriates job in foreign operation Language skills Expatriate Success factors Willing and motivated to go overseas Technically able to do the job Adaptable Good interpersonal skills and be able to form relationship Good communication ability Supportive families Adaptabi lity to cultural change Work experience with cultures other than ones own Previous overseas travel Knowledge of foreign language Ability to integrate with different people, cultures, and type of business organisation The ability to sense developments in the host country and accurately evaluate them The ability to solve problems within different frameworks an from different perspectives Sensitivity to subtle differences of culture, politics, religion and ethics in addition to individual differences Flexibility in managing operations on a continuous basis, despite of lack of assistance and gaps in information Globalized HRM role Two major types of adjustments that an expatriate must make when going on an overseas assignment. Anticipatory adjustment Carried on before he leaves for the assignment It is influenced by following factors predeparture training pervious experience In-country adjustment Takes place on site It is influenced by following factors Ability to maintain a positive outlook in high pressure Jobs as reflected by the role he plays in managing, authority he has to make decisions, newness of work-related challenges and the amount of role conflicts Organisation culture Non work factors toughness with he faces new cultural experience, family adjustment with new country Socialisation factor to know what is what and who is who Expatriate Training and Development Need for Training to Expatriate Cost of expatriate failure is very high To build a team of internationally oriented, committed and competent personnel Minimize personal problems such as politeness, punctuality, tactfulness, orderliness, sensitivity, reliability, tolerance and empathy Improve overall management style Pre-departure Training- Emphasises on cultural awareness and business customs of the country of posting to cope with unexpected events in a new country. Post-departure Training helps in minimising culture shock and depression that usually sets in a new country and culture. Cultural Integrator An individual who is responsible for ensuring that the operations and systems are in accordance with the local culture. He advises guides and recommends action needed to ensure this synchronisation. Even though expatriate are trained before being sent abroad, they are still not totally prepared to deal with the day-to-day cultural challenges because t hey lack field experience. He is responsible for handling problems between the subsidiary and host cultures. He may be from parent country or host country who has intimate knowledge of the companys culture and can view operations from both sides. He can only advice ore recommend a course of action. Management philosophy and training Ethnocentric companies will provide all training at the HQ. Polycentric companies will rely on local managers to assume responsibilities for seeing that the training function is carried our wherever appropriate. Geocentric companies organise training courses in different parts of the world, where a particular function is best carried out. Regiocentric companies organise training courses in different countries of the region. Cultural Awareness Training There are five types of pre-departure training Area studies that include environmental briefing and cultural orientation Cultural assimilators Language training Sen sitivity training and Field experience To decide the rigour and level of training, following factors are important degree of interaction required in the host culture similarities between home and host cultures If interaction is low and similarities are high, then training should be on task and job related issues rather than culture related issues. If interaction is high and similarities are low, then training should be on cross cultural skill development as well as task. Preliminary visits average duration will be about one week A well planned overseas trip for candidate and spouse provides a preview to access their suitability for job, introduction to host country management, accommodation required, and schooling facilities available. Language training Types of cross cultural training Environment briefing about geography, climate, housing and schools Cultural orientation to familiarise with cultural institutions and value system of host countr y Cultural assimilators to provide intercultural encounters Language training Sensitivity training to develop attitudinal flexibility Field experience to make expatriate familiarise with the challenges of assignment Cultural Assimilators It is a programmed learning technique that is designed to expose members of one culture to some of the basic concepts, attitudes, role perceptions, customs and values of another culture. These assimilators are developed for one culture where the candidate is currently working and the other culture is where he is proposed to be posted. Type of assimilators The trainee read a short episode of cultural encounter and choose an interpretation of has happened and why. Critical incidents: to be identified as a critical incident, a situation must meet at least of the following conditions: An expatriate and a host interact in the situation The situation is puzzling or likely to be misinterpreted by the expatriate The si tuation can be accurately interpreted if sufficient knowledge about the culture is available The situation is relevant to the expatriates task or mission requirements Compensation Management Factors Influencing Compensation Programmes Compensation decisions are strategic decisions and play a key role It should be consistent with overall strategy, structure and business needs of MNC It must attract and retain the best staff It must facilitate the transfer of international employees in a cost effective manner. It should give due consideration to equity and ease at administration. It requires the knowledge of employment and taxation laws, customs, cost of living index, environment and employment practices, the knowledge of labour markets and industry norms, foreign currency fluctuations. Paying Expatriates: unique problems Discrepancies in pay between PCN, HCN and TCN The need to vary expatriate compensation depending on the life cycle of the expatriates family Compensation issues related to re-entry into the parent country organisation Approaches to Expatriates Compensation Going Rate Approach Base salary remains linked to the salar y structure of the host country. Required information is obtained through compensation surveys and published information. This approach is favoured by polycentric organisation Advantage Equality with local nationals and expatriates of different nationals Simple approach Attract the nationals of PCN and TCN if location is a high-pay country Disadvantage Transfer from a developed country to a developing country Fighting for getting favourable posting and resisting low pay country postings Problems when the expatriates repatriated to the home country An export or import or franchising arrangement Company appoints an export manager who reports to chief of marketing and all operations concerning export and imports are controlled by the home office Balance Sheet Approach It links the salary of expatriates and TCNs to home country salary structure. Assumption Foreign assignees should not suffer financially due to transfer Salary package is d ivided into goods and services, housing, income taxes and reserve. Cultural Impact and Compensation Policy National cultural difference High power-distance the compensation system should reflect hierarchical divisions in the firm. Low power-distance the salary system should be more egalitarian and performance based. Individual cultures rewards should be given on an individual basis. Collectivist cultures they should be team based. Culture with high masculinity compensation policy focus on social benefits, quality of work life and equity. Culture with high uncertainty avoidance structured and consistent pay plans are preferred with no variable plans and discretionary allocation. Culture with low uncertainty avoidance pay should be linked to performance. Performance Management in International Organisations Performance Management and its link with other HR Processes Reward Management Human Resource Planning Training and Development Process Relationship with strategy Multinational Performance Management Whole vs part Non-comparable data Volatility of the international environment Separation by time and distance HQ-subsidiary interdependence Ethical and legal issues Market Maturity Performance Management of expatriates decisions and play a key role Setting clear goals for each unit, each department and each employee Goals must be mutually supportive and balanced for long and short term needs. Setting standard and measurement criteria for evaluating each type of goal Formal monitoring and review of progress towards these objectives Using the outcomes of the review process to reinforce desired employee behaviour through differential rewards and identifying training and development needs. Variables that Influence Performance of Expat riate Compensation Package Nature of Assignment Role Clarity Psychological Contract HQs support Environment of the Host Country Cultural Adjustment Critical Success Factors Recommendations: The Impact of Diversity and the Changing Nature of the Workplace on Human Resource Functions in Work Organizations: Given the era of Globalization, managing diversity at the workplace has become a business issue for the HR Department and no longer simply a moral, social, or legal concern. The challenge is no more creating a diverse employee demographic, but empowering one that already exists due the natural global nature of the business. Despite all the hype around Diversity and the pros of having a multicultural workplace, organizations still tend to reflect: Soft implementation of highly expensive Diversity Management Programs A poor gender ratio when it comes to higher managerial positions Poor integration of disabled people into the employee base. Senior management teams not reflecting ethnic diversity. Some critical success factors to ensuring that diversity is leveraged well by organizations include: A) Clear organization wide understanding of the business case for Diversity. The HR department along with the senior management and the line managers need to be clear about the need to be diverse and embrace new cultures and ethnic backgrounds into their folds. Going beyond corporate trainings and having blurred notions of how multi-cultural employee base would help the organization to gain competitive edge over local competition in remote markets, all levels of the organization need to clearly articulate how a diverse human resource base would help reach the organization goal and hence their own individual goals. Further they understand that a multi-cultural workforce can improve their organizations adaptiveness and change readiness. This would clearly improve the culture within the organization to recruit, develop and retain the best staff. B) Assessment of Current Situation. HR departments that are particularly successful at managing diversity routinely spend time, money and effort in gauging the ever changing composition of the workforce given geographical expansions, attrition and new recruits. They routinely assess not just numbers associated with the above dynamics but also behaviours, and culture associated with these changes. Eg. Eastman Kodak created a specialist external diversity panel to conduct an outsider review of the current situation. The Management of Eastman Kodak assessed recruitment policies to address cultural imbalances and even cultural blocks to retaining and developing a multi-demographic employee base. Without the above HR Departments would only end up paying lip service to managing diversity or spending huge amounts on expensive specialist corporate trainings on managing diversity without actually creating a basic inclusive work culture. Ergo, wasting time and effort on initiatives that are unsustainable in an environment where self assessment itself is not done. C) Managing Diversity is a top-down approach. Successful diversity management initiatives are ones that have high visibility of the senior management team. Eg. Back in mid 90ies, Lou Gerstner identified diversity as a key strategic initiative for IBM globally. He was a strong proponent of leveraging differences to address new markets. He established eight task forces representing various ethnic groups, allocating executive sponsors from his direct reporting team and insisting on specific measurable results within specified timelines personally reviewing progress on the results. Many HR departments have gone beyond simply including diversity management in their employee handbook and actually championed setting up panels and councils that include senior executives. Diversity management may require fundamental changes to the very culture of the organization and hence require stewardship by the senior executives. D) HR initiatives need to promote cultural harmony rather than address cultural imbalances. Initiatives from HR need to promote creating a multi-cultural environment. Simply having reservation seats and quotas and fancy cultural training and diversity training is not enough. HR Departments need to ensure that minorities have the same opportunities and such initiatives are an integral part of their day to day working rather than simply an extra curricular task! Ensuring objective appraisal systems, rewards and recognition and universal training and development opportunities is key to promoting an all encompassing holistic HR approach. E) Objective assessment of the Diversity management initiative and scientific assessment of programs are key. Many HR Departments have succeeded in developing measurable diversity management programs. E.g. the Hyatt Hotel Group the world over ties approximately 15% of the bonus potential to diversity goals. HR Departments that have been successful in managing diversity have translated it into a core competency used to assess the performance of management. F) Diversity Management principles are all encompassing and wholesome enough for everyone to participate. If the Diversity Management programs are only a bastion of the senior management, the entire exercise would be superficial and unsustainable. In order to result in successful recruitment, retention and development of employees in a globalized world, it is important that it is an inclusive program cascading throughout the organization. E.g. IBM created specific task forces but more importantly invited participation in the form of inputs to help these task forces in creating an inclusive culture. Managing diversity and the every changing workplace in the face of globalization is not the prerogative of the senior management alone but is to be implemented at the grass root level where managing diversity to retain and recruit top talent is a challenge in itself. These critical to success factors for managing diversity are not complicated models however they are tough to actually execute and require a motivated effort on the part of the Human Resources team and buy-in from the entire organization. Conclusion: Clearly Globalization has brought about a paradigm shift to International Trade providing it with a great boost. I feel, employees form perhaps the most critical resource base since they are the ones to deploy other resources and hence, in todays Globalized world, competitive advantage can be gained only by effective Human Resource management. A natural caveat to be issued in such a varied workplace is greater requirement from organizations to focus on differences between ethnic and cultural groups in attitude and performance at the workplace. Diversity requires Human Resources Department to find similarities and recognize differences as workplaces get more and more diversified. The test for Human Resource Departments therefore is to manage and appreciate the diverse workforce. With a multinational approach to Staffing Recruitment and Selection Compensation Management Performance review and management An organization can leverage the human potential to su cceed regardless of the geography and the ethnic composition in its employee base. For truly the organization of today, the difference between success and failure can depend on the recruitment and retention of the most skilled, qualified and talented staff from the world over, creating a unique and strong multi-cultural backbone to get the valuable competitive edge.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Assassination of Julius Caesar - 1213 Words

On the Ides of March one of the most famous assassinations took place; the assassination of the leader of the Roman republic, Julius Caesar. The death of Julius Caesar allowed Gaius Julius Octavius who would later be given the title Augustus by the senate, to enter the political realm of Rome by accepting his inherited power. But before Augustus could gain any control in Rome he had to defeat his opposition, Mark Antony who also sought to gain control of Rome at the time. Augustus managed to defeat Antony during the Final War of the Roman Republic. As the wars between potential leaders continued the people of Rome grew tired of the bloodshed and political uncertainty, so they began to yearn for some stability in Rome. The lust for political steadiness from the citizens and senate of Rome allowed Augustus to eventually force himself into power and become known as the first Emperor of Rome. Augustus was aware that the residents of Rome had just experienced the fall of many political fi gures and were skeptical and wary of his rule so he needed to legitimize his position and to do so he used portraiture. He employed art as a way portray his power and to push political messages such as the message of peace and old Roman traditions in order to appease the people, while solidifying his position as ruler. Once emperor, Augustus used structures, statues and other forms of artwork to convey himself as powerful. Similar to today’s leaders, emperors were not frequently seen by theShow MoreRelatedThe Assassination of Julius Caesar1325 Words   |  6 Pagesstrength to fear, dictatorship, and voraciousness. These powerful aristocrats were emperors, sat on the top of Rome’s social order, but many of these emperors abused their status and ability. Roman emperors’ history was all mixed ingredients of love, assassination, vengeance, terror, voracity, jealousy, and haughtiness. The first century AD of the Roman Empire became a perilous period of imperialism because hereditary rule. Emperors in this epoch were not selected based on their skill and trustworthinessRead MoreThe Assassination of Julius Caesar1768 Words   |  8 Pages Wendy Voong History 101 J.Duran 24 October 2014 The Assassination of Julius Caesar â€Å"The Assassination of Julius Caesar† by Michael Parenti goes into details about the events that lead up to the death of Caesar due to class conflicts. In 44 BC, the assassination of Julius Caesar was lead by conspiring members of the Roman senate who wanted to remove the dictator, who was increasingly acquiring power, and to revive the Republic government. Parentis book protestsRead MoreThe Assassination Of Julius Caesar1516 Words   |  7 Pagesthree of Satan s apprentices the son, father and holy spirit. He is in the ninth circle of hell for his betrayal against the state of Rome, which ultimately lead to the fall of Rome. 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He had the favor of the people, military and most of the Roman governmentRead MoreThe Assassination Of Julius Caesar As A Roman Dictator1086 Words   |  5 PagesJulius Caesar was a Roman Dictator who was both loved and hated by those that he ruled over. Throughout the world, he has been written about in a variety of different ways and is portrayed as a politician as well as a selfish dictator. Three â€Å"firsthand† accounts that were written to give us a better understanding of Julius Caesar were â€Å"The Assassination of Julius Caesar†, â€Å"Tranquillus, Gaius Suetoniusà ¢â‚¬ , and â€Å"Plutarch, The Assassination of Julius Caesar, from Marcus Brutus†. 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Gaius Julius Caesar, famously known for his brilliant military strategies and shrewd political expertise, helped transform the Roman Republic into one of the greatest civilization in the western world. During his reign, Julius Ceasar expanded Rome’s geographical territory across Ancient Europe immensely, conquering areas of present-day France and Britain. The i nvestigationRead MoreJustification of Caesar’s Assassination in Shakespeares The Tragedy of Julius Caesar878 Words   |  3 PagesWilliam Shakespeare, wrote the play The Tragedy of Julius Caesar. The story takes place toward the end of the Roman Republic in 44 BC in Ancient Rome. The play follows the words and actions of the Roman senators, plebeians and their emperor Julius Caesar. As the story begins, readers find out the many of the senators are not pleased with Caesar as a ruler of the Roman people. Two characters, Brutus and Cassius are especially passionate about killing Caesar to end his rule. Through discussing plans andRead MoreGaius Cassius Longinu Part in the Assissination of Julius Ceasar797 Words   |  3 PagesCassius, full name Gaius Cassius Longinus, was recalled as a good soldier with a terrible temper and in politics, irrational and drowned by vanity. In his time he was a Roman senator, also known by his part-taking in the assassination of Julius Caesar. In his early years, he studied philosophy under Archelaus, and was fluent in Greek. His wife, Junia Tertia was the half-sister of co-conspirator Brutus. Cassius served under Crassus, He took part in saving Remnants of the Roman army against theRead MoreJulius Caesar ´s Death: Analysis Essay552 Words   |  3 PagesShould Julius Caesar have been killed? This question has plagued history for years without a real answer. Julius Caesar was corrupt and all powerful, and his death saved Rome. It really is that simple; he declared himself dictator for life and ignored the Senate’s power. A man with that much power can only hurt a nation. Julius Caesar was a blood thirsty man. He fought everyone he could just to extend Rome. (Julius Caesar. ) He savagely killed anyone that got in his way. Many may say that he was

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Principles Ofpersonal Developement in Adult Social Care Free Essays

UNIT 302PRINCIPLES OF PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADULT SOCIAL CARE SETTINGS 1. 1 Reflective practices are when you review your own actions and experiences in your role, critically and constructively, with the intention of improving the way you conduct yourself The aim being to provide a better service in the future and personal improvement. 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Principles Ofpersonal Developement in Adult Social Care or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2 Reflective practice is important in as much that it enables me to review real life situations I have been in, how I dealt with them, how I felt and the outcome of how I acted towards others all these will enable me to improve personally and improve the service I provide. . 3 Standards that are set, whether by Government or regulatory bodies are the level we should hope to achieve or improve on when conducting reflective practices. 1. 4 Your own values, beliefs and experiences can either work for or against you, it is important in a professional environment to have a balanced and neutral view on all situations. If you can’t take yourself away from the situation you could for example get yourself in trouble by just not understanding a cultural difference. On a positive side your own personal experience may help to resolve a developing problem. 2. 1 Some people may react badly and see it as a criticism and become resentful, others will see if for what it is and take it on board improving themselves and therefore provide a better level of care. 2. 2 Feedback is a good way to find out how you are performing in your role, it will also indicate where you may need to improve. It can also raise self-esteem and improve staff moral as well as improve the service to the client. . 3 It is important to use feedback positively to improve yourself in your chosen role as the advice given is normally good and helps you see things that you do well and what you may need to do to improve in order to provide a better service to your clients and may well help you to understand better what is expected of you. 3. 1 A personal development plan will give you an overview of your objectives, what position you are in now, what your strengths are and what areas n eed to improve to achieve your goals. It should also list who can help you locally, what qualification you may need and how to obtain them (what organisation can help), an action plan with a time scale. 3. 2 Sources of support could be your Matron, senior nurses, colleagues, job centres other support services, the first 3 would probably be on a more regular basis. 3. 3 Others can help you to review the position you are in now and what you may need to do to improve yourself in order to improve your position this could e your matron who can do appraisals, a senior nurse who may do an assessment or it could be an informal view from a colleague who may be able to constructively observe areas of you development. You could also do self- reviewing and assessments. 3. 4 A PDP helps you to map progress to your aims, and keeps track of your progress, it also helps you to reflect on your achievements with a critical eye and can aid growth in confidence and development. How to cite Principles Ofpersonal Developement in Adult Social Care, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Develop Training Program

Question: Discuss the outline of a Half-Day (Off-the-job) training program, on-the-job training initiatives and reasons on the chosen methods. Answer: Outline of a Half-Day (Off-the-job) training program It has to be realized that investing in employees additional trainings and not necessarily always directly linked to their role in the organization, is extremely valuable. Furthermore investing in employees well being is also important. At the end of the day happy employee is a productive and loyal employee. Of course there are exceptions to the rule, where employees abuse organizational care for employees.It is recommended that the training needs of employees should be meet at One Pound Emporium. It can be said that aknowledge management strategy designed to improve business performance must address behavioral norms and practices, in other words organizational culture where these are essential to effective knowledge use (Kuvaas, 2010). This may explain why organizations in collectivistic cultures such as in Japan readily embrace and utilize knowledge management, whereas in more individualistic cultures like UK, there may be more resistance. There are various ways to design the train ing programs. The training for customer care first and employee values at the heart of excellent customer service would be an informal training in the form of a group discussion among the employees. The specifics of this half-day training can be discussed as: Targeted aim: This would be off-the job training with the aim to increase the communication between workers and improve the workplace dynamics. The targeted aim of this training would be to improve flexibility within the organization (Clardy, 2008). The aim of this training would be to focus on customer relationship management. Learning objectives: This would be an informal event with the objective to increase flexibility in the team members. The employees would be trained to understand the customers expectations and act accordingly. Timings: The timing of this training program would be 11 A.M. to 4 P.M. There would also be a short break from 1 P.M. to 2 P.M. Activities: There would be number of activities that would be performed as part of this training. There would be group discussion, informal chat rooms, short games, etc. There would be power point presentations that would be given with the specific targeted aim and the learning objectives (Ramachandran, 2011). There would be seven power-point presentations for different topics like team dynamics, flexibility, work place dynamics, etc. Assessment: There would be an assessment performed after the training is completed. This assessment would be in the form of a quiz. The quiz or the assessment would have 20 multiple-choice questions. The objective of this assessment would be to judge the learning and knowledge gain by employees (Corbridge, 2010). A sample of questions in the assessment can be discussed as: Q 1: How would you define the importance of team communication for work environment? Rate from a scale from 1 to 5, 1 being least important and 5 being most important Q2: What is the importance of customer relationship management in the overall organizational policies? Rate from a scale from 1 to 5, 1 being least important and 5 being most important Q3: What is the important of CRM policies in organizational mission and vision ? Rate from a scale from 1 to 5, 1 being least important and 5 being most important Training feedback evaluation form: It is important that every training should have a feedback evaluation form. The evaluation form that would be used for this training can be shown as: Name of the candidate/ trainee Date of Birth Contact Details (Phone number and email-id) Address Designation in the company Number of years of experience in the company Did you find training useful? What did you gain from the training? What were the shortcomings or the weakness of the training? How could this training program be further improved? Would you prefer to attend any similar training in the future? Any other comments/ suggestions/ issues/ concerns? On-the-job training initiatives There would be significant difference sin the off-the-job training and on-job training. The on-the-job training would focus more on the continuous improvement. Whereas, the off-job training was more of one time activity that would happen at regular intervals. The three on-the-job training initiatives for the employees of at One Pound Emporium can be discussed as: First Initiative: Classroom training and session from senior management In an organization, the senior management is the most experience people. It is important that the senior management should cascade their learning experience to employees. The senior managers of the firm should explain the learning from their success and from their failure. Woodrow (2014) argued that the richest learning experience could be achieved from failure. He criticizes the way managers reward success and look down upon failure as something that can be detrimental to the long-term health of the organization. Second Initiative: Practical training with role-plays The customer satisfaction could be achieved only when employees understand the issues of customers. The on job training must include the role-play where management would act as customers and employees would be trained (Bach, 2001). There are a lot of theories, which describe the learning management for the organization and the organization knowledge managementsso far "Modern theorists of management practice argue that knowledge is key for long term competitive advantage in modern economy. Currently available models, which describe knowledge creation, are mainly incomplete due to unevenly distributed support for specific aspects of these models (Constandse, J.M., 2013). I am personally agree with the theory that mention that the organization learning and organizational knowledge is the key as much as the key is important we still need to plan what next and here is the value of the knowledge and how to use id in the development process. So, its a complete cycle of process that supporti ng each other and also developing each other toward the final planned strategically goals. Third initiative: Training with peers The absolute level of customer satisfaction could be achieved only when employees also understand the skills and competencies of their peers. The organization has multiple stores. Therefore, the employees must also learn to work in virtual teams. The best-fit approach would suggest that organizations need to move with the times and use virtual teams, especially if that is what competitors are doing. The best-practice model would also drive the use of such teams if it means that performance will be enhanced (Armstrong, 2009). As the resource-based view places great focus upon thepeopleof the organization, it would be considered vital to do what is best for the employee, and if allowing for a virtual set-up means getting the best people on board, virtual teams would be supported. Reasons on the chosen methods The objective of the above initiative is to focus on the competency of employees. While executing core competencies such has high communication skills, self and business awareness, the responsibility of HR managers was also to change their role's perception seen by their non-HR counterparts by way of deploying their strategies by way of these core competencies; thus becoming credible champions of their role. The main advantage and disadvantages of the recommended training methods can be discussed as: Method Advantage Disadvantage Classroom training and session from senior management 1.Direct communication and interaction between senior management and employees 2. Effective and efficient model of training as employees can directly present their concerns to management (Graf, 2007) 1. The fulfillment of this training would require infrastructure like classrooms etc. 2. The productive time of senior management would be used for other purpose Practical training with role-plays 1. It would help to analyze the practical nature of the problem 2. Involvement of various stakeholders 1. Different employees can have their own perception of role play 2. Time consuming and costly Training with peers 1. It would help to increase the communication between all the employees of organization 1. It could increase the chances of conflicts between the team members The above training objectives could be achieved if the organization can focus on HR strategies. One of the difficult tasks for management of One Pound Emporium would be to evaluate and assess the benefit of training programs (Bonder, 2011). The assessment and evaluation would be effective only when the organization has a HR strategist. In my opinion, the HR strategist is limited to the frame provided by the organization as such cannot do much where constrained. HR strategy will be efficient when it can be aligned with corporate strategy and drive. The evaluation and assessment of the training would happen at three levels. These levels can be discussed as: Level 1: Self evaluation The first level of evaluation would be self-evaluation. All the workers and employees of the organization that would participate in the training programs would be asked to complete the self-evaluation. Level 2: Evaluation at HR level The second level of evaluation would be at an HRM level. At this level, the HR executives and management would evaluate and assess the training programs. The HR managers can use the metrics like productivity improvement of employees, attrition arte, etc. to assess the success of training programs (Mazvancheryl, 2004). Level 3: Evaluation at management level The third level of evaluation would be at the management level. The senior management of the firm would assess the success of the training program. The management of One Pound Emporium can use the metrics like Customer Satisfaction Index, Employee perception, etc. The HR strategist would also focus on the negative managers and weak management skills in the One Pound Emporium. In an organization, few managers mention lack of delegation, minatory comment, lack of honest feedback and inaccessibility and closed mind as main factors that they especially watch out for in their communications and performance as managers, because of their former bosses. Lauren Stiller (2015), President of Rikleen Institute for Strategic Leadership, support these negative factors that are identified in terrible managers performance, when she recommend leaders to avoid speaking before thinking, negative feedbacks and ignoring the benefits of diversity. The management of One Pound Emporium must realize that skills required to complete the job may never be constant (Hall, 2011). Therefore, it is important that employers should develop a culture where employees can work to update their skills. The management of the company should focus to update the training needs and the training programs at regular interval. It is also recommended that management of One Pound Emporium should include employees to develop continuous training programs. The management must collect feedback from employees and this feedback would help management to develop future strategies and plans. References Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C. Mazvancheryl, S. K. (2004) 'Customer Satisfaction and Shareholder Value',Journal of Marketing, 68, October, pp. 172-185. Armstrong, M. (2009), A Handbook of Human Resource Practice Management, 11th ed. Kogan Page Bonder, A, Bouchard, C, Bellemare, G 2011, "Competency-Based Management-An Integrated Approach to Human Resource Management in the UK Public Sector",Public Personnel Management,40(1), pp. 1-10, education Research Clardy, A 2008, " The strategic role of Human Resource Develpment in managing core competencie",Human Resource Development International,11(2), pp. 183-197 Dr. Bach, S. (2001)HR and new approaches to public sector management: improving HRM capacity, World Health Org. Geneva, Switzerland [accessed on the 05thFebruary, 2016https://www.who.int/hrh/en/Improving_hrm_capacity.pdf Graf, A 2007,"Changing roles of customers: consequences for HRM",International Journal of ServiceIndustry Management, 18(5), pp. 491-509 Jerald, C.D. (2009)Defining a 21stcentury education. Available at:https://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Learn-About/21st-Century/Defining-a-21st-Century-Education-Full-Report-PDF.pdf(Accessed: 05 February 2015). Kuvaas, B. Dysvik, A. (2010) 'Does best practice HRM only work for intrinsically motivated employees?',International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 21 (13), pp. 2339-2357 Pilbeam, S. Corbridge, M. (2010)People resourcing and talent planning: HRM in practice. 4th ed. London: Prentice Hall International. Ramachandran, R. (2011) 'Professional competence and statistical integrity challenges faced in the small area estimation: A public policy tool development perspective',Statistical Journal of the IAOS, 27, pp. 39-47. Torrington, D., Taylor, S. And Hall, L. (2011), Human Resource Management, 8th ed. FT/Prentice Hall Woodrow, C., Guest, D. E. (2014). When good HR gets bad results: exploring the challenge of HR implementation in the case of workplace bullying.Human Resource Management Journal,24(1), 38-56.